War & underdevelopment in Muslim countries

Translated by: Eric Lob;

All people want peace with material prosperity that results from economic development. Therefore, all countries want to be developed, but none of the Muslim countries are developed. Today, the official religion of fifty-three of the world’s countries is Islam. Of course, the leaders and heads of these countries are Muslim. Interestingly, these fifty-three countries are different in terms of race, culture, geography and language, but are similar in terms of poverty, insecurity, backwardness, underdevelopment and religion.

Among the Muslim countries, Albania is the poorest and most backward European country. Most countries in the Middle East with massive wealth and natural resources are underdeveloped and are part of the Third World. Turkey, the United Arabic Emirates and Malaysia are the only developing countries that do not enforce the rule of Islamic law and are governed by secular leaders. Yemen, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, Iraq, Bahrain and Somalia are involved in civil war. The most important factor that leads to insecurity and violence is organizations that wave the banner of Islam and claim to represent Muslims. The highest incidence of crime, killings, assassinations, violence, and human rights abuses occur in Muslim countries.In addition to poverty, insecurity and dictatorship in Muslim countries, a fundamental question remains: Why do Muslim countries face war and underdevelopment?

To answer the above mentioned question, it is necessary to examine the purpose and nature of Islam. In this book, the purpose and nature of Islam is examined during the lifetime of the Prophet (pbuh) and the existence of the Islamic Republic of Iran and other Muslim entities.

Fourteen hundred years ago, the Prophet (pbuh) founded Islam. The aim of the Prophet (pbuh) was prosperity. He said: "say that no God but Allah may prosper."Prosperity means more salvation in this world and happiness in the afterlife. The provision of salvation and welfare in this world is examined in economic development. Happiness in the afterlife is a phenomenon that happens in the future. This phenomenon is not reviewed by and remains absent from this study.

Economic development suggests ways to achieve human welfare. It determines the criteria for achieving economic development. This study selected thirteen criteria proposed by scholars of economic development for the welfare of most communities.

The research method is comparative. Therefore, these thirteen criteria evaluate the performance of the councils of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), the Islamic Republic of Iran and other Muslim entities. The aim of this study is to identify the purpose and nature of Islam. Is the nature of Islam development-oriented? Does this mean that religion can bring prosperity to its followers? Or, on the contrary,is the nature of this religion hawkish and destructive? To find the answer to these two questions is to identify the causes of war and underdevelopment in Muslim countries. Theselected criteria for this study are as follows.

1. The scientific outlook as cultural beliefs 2. Beliefs in human equality 3. Freedom of expression 4. Environmental protection as cultural beliefs 5. The presence of women in social activities 6.Apowerful government and flexibility in the international arena 7. Political participation bycivil society organizations 8. Legality 9. Transparency 10.The role of elites in economic development 11. Human rights12. Strategic attitudes 13. Responsiveness.

The results show the following:The state founded by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his ten-year rule implemented all the criteria required for economic development, if we assume that welfare and security are relative. During the ten- year rule of the Prophet (pbuh), welfare and security increased.

As such, the Prophet (pbuh) followed the pattern of a human development-oriented and developed state. Therefore, all the criteria required for economic development as divine laws were implemented and emphasized.

With this introduction we can say the following: More proof exists that modern man knows what is essential for economic development, as emphasized and implemented in Islam. Therefore, the governments and communities that mishandle these criteria can be considered, in principle, a deviation from Islam.

After the life of the Prophet (pbuh), Muslims became divided into different groups. The first splinter group was the Kharijites. This group, according to the Qur’an, was Muslim infidels and pagans. Then, Muslims were murdered on the streets. As a result, blind assassinations were carried out in the name of Islam. This group fabricated many traditions to justify its work.

The second splinter group was the Umayyads. This group, according to the Qur’an, had a plan for cruel dictatorship. This group did not implement any of the criteria that the Prophet (pbuh) had recommended. The practice of Islam was diverted from its original purpose and nature. Failure to heed or follow the recommendations of the Prophet (pbuh) led to war and underdevelopment in Muslim countries.

Now, under various pretexts, the criteria for development have not been implemented. The reasons for this are as follows.

1- Criterion of a scientific attitude: The scientific outlook is based on testable and repeatable events and phenomena. Islamic scholars think that the scientific method exists to eliminate religion and Islam. As such,they seek to prove that the scientific method is inefficient. These actions cause Muslims to become superstitious.

2- Belief in human equality: The leader of each Muslim sect claims to know the impurities of the followers of other sects of Islam and the followers of other religions. This has led to the issue of equality being violated.

3- Belief and culture of free expression: Various sects of Islam do not tolerate opposition protests and free speech. Religious leaders consider protesters apostates. Freedom of expression is promoted through a free and independent media and social networks. Most religious leaders are prohibiting mass media, such as radio, television, Internet, etc. and social networks. In some countries, the media is severely restricted.

4-Environmental protection as cultural beliefs: Muslim countries do not care about the environment. Dust and air pollution has increased significantly. In this case, no religious leaders speak against or warn of it.

5- Presence of women in social activities: God prohibits insulting and humiliating women and gender discrimination. However, in Muslim countries, all kinds of insults and sexual discrimination against women are carried out. In addition, for various reasons, these countries ban women from social arenas.

6- Powerful government and flexibility in the international arena: The main obstacle to powerful government is absolutism in Muslim countries.Absolutismmeansthatevery Muslim sectdeemsonly itself as right and the other sects aswrong,heathen, infidels, heretics, and apostates.This right and wrong is used forexplanation andhistorical interpretation. These opinions causesectarian warinside countriesand preventnegotiatingand understanding with foreign countries. Islam and the Holy Prophet’s (pbuh)lifestylerejected absolutism. Additionally,thelifestyle of theProphet (pbuh) was based on negotiation and understanding.

7--Thestate that the Prophet (pbuh) founded was based on the maximum participation of the people. Today, the maximum participation of the people is possible by creating civil society. Examples ofcivil society include councils, provinces, cities, towns,villages and neighborhoods that are organized to provide public services.Other examples include guilds, cooperatives, unions and popular organizations that regulate the market.Theheads of these organizations are elected by direct popular vote for a limited time.

However, some jurists have now defined Islamic governanceas dictatorship. They are opposed to democracy and civil society. This issue is caused by dictatorships in Muslim countries.

8- Legality or the rule of law consists of havingan independent judiciary that effectively and efficiently interprets the law. An independent judiciary is measured by the Gini coefficient index, corruption levels, the number of cases that have been filed with the Justice Department, the number of prisoners, and the number of senior officials who have been tried and convicted. In all Muslim countries, these indicators are negative. Therefore, the judiciary is not independent in Muslim countries. The effective and efficient interpretation of the law serves the public interest and corrects systemic weaknesses. Effective legislation requires legal research institutions. There are no such institutions in Muslim countries.

9- Transparency: Government corruption prevents entrepreneurs from increasing their productivity and employment. The state that was established by the Prophet (pbuh) contained a high degree of transparency. Today, international organizations have defined indicators of transparency. Results show that Muslim countries are not performing well in this area. As a result, the laws and behavior of the leaders of Muslim countriesaredifferent from the behavior of the Prophet (pbuh).

10- The role of elites in economic development:Elite formation can only occur in democracies with strong political parties. Within political parties elites codify plans for economic development. Therefore, elites implement their programs after assuming power. In dictatorships and republics without strong parties,elites are not organized or disciplined. As a result, the government does not have a sound plan for development.

It may be thatthe management of these countries is placed in the hands of powerful groups. The dominance of powerful groups has destroyed every country. In Muslim countries, there is no democracy or strong political parties. In Iran, the behavior of the Guardian Council during elections prevents elites from being organized or acting collectively. As such, the most important cause of underdevelopment in Iran is the behavior of the Guardian Council.

11- Human rights: The mission of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was the observance of human rights. He removed all the customary penalties and put in place a legal mechanism. Additionally, methods to remove or reduce punishments were institutionalized in Muslim society. During the ten-year rule of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) no one was beaten, imprisoned, executed, or insulted. However, in Muslim countries, none of the commands of the Prophet (pbuh) regarding human rights are enforced. These countriescommit human rights violations andjustify them based on differing interpretations of Islam.

12- Strategic objectives: The main goals of Muslim rule are equity and social welfare. However, some Muslim sects have focused on the fight against polytheism and disbelief. As a result, financial resources are not mobilized for development or economic prosperity. This focus is considered a perversion of Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) only fought against polytheismthrough religious propagation andcultural activities. As such, he shunned all forms of violence and other costly actions.

On the other hand, the purpose of religion and religiosityis totrainexperts, who are efficient and committed to the interests of the public. Since such people in Muslim countries are scarce and rare, it is necessary to revise the structure of religious educational institutions. Finally, in order to achieve economic development, banks must play a role in providing investment. However, the idea of Islamic banking plays a destructive role in the economy of Muslims countries.

13- The purpose ofresponsivenessis to increase the indicators of per capita income, stabilize per capita income and the human development index, and decrease the misery index. Figures published by international organizations on responsiveness show that these figures and rankings for Iran and other Muslim countries are low. These indicators show that public administrators and civil servants in Muslim countries are not accountable or responsiveness to the people.

In general, the thoughts and actions of some Muslim religious leaders have caused wars and underdevelopment. In Iran, the behavior of three institutions – the Guardian Council, the judiciary, and Islamic banks – has caused underdevelopment.

The entire book is in Persianand is available for download.

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دسته: فرهنگي
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